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Publishing ethics
The publication of an article in a peer-reviewed journal is an essential building block in the development of a coherent and respected network of knowledge. It is a direct reflection of the quality of the work of the authors and the institutions that support them. Peer-reviewed articles support and embody the scientific method. It is therefore important to agree upon standards of expected ethical behavior for all parties involved in the act of publishing: the author, the journal editor, the peer reviewer, the publisher and the society of society-owned or sponsored journals.

Duties of Editors
Publication decision
Fair play
Disclosure and Conflicts of interest
Involvement and cooperation in investigations

Duties of Reviewers
Contribution to Editorial Decision
Standards of Objectivity
Acknowledgement of Source
Disclosure and Conflicts of Interest

Duties of Authors
Reporting standards
Data Access and Retention
Originality and Plagiarism
Multiple, Redundant or Concurrent Publication
Acknowledgement of Sources
Authorship of the Paper
Hazards and Human or Animal Subjects
Disclosure and Conflicts of Interest
Fundamental errors in published works

Publishing responsibilities of authors
Reporting standards

Authors of reports of original research should present an accurate account of the work performed as well as an objective discussion of its significance. Underlying data should be represented accurately in the paper. A paper should contain sufficient detail and references to permit others to replicate the work. Fraudulent or knowingly inaccurate statements constitute unethical behavior and are unacceptable.Review and professional publication articles should also be accurate and objective, and editorial ¡¯opinion¡¯ works should be identified as such.

Hazards and human or animal subjects
If the work involves chemicals, procedures or equipment that have any unusual hazards inherent in their use, the author must clearly identify these in the manuscript. If the work involves the use of animal or human subjects, the author should ensure that the manuscript contains a statement that all procedures were performed in compliance with relevant laws and institutional guidelines and that the appropriate institutional committee(s) has approved them. Authors should include a statement in the manuscript that informed consent was obtained for experimentation with human subjects. The privacy rights of human subjects must always be observed.

Use of patient images or case details
Studies on patients or volunteers require ethics committee approval and informed consent, which should be documented in the paper.
Appropriate consents, permissions and releases must be obtained where an author wishes to include case details or other personal information or images of patients and any other individuals in an Elsevier publication. Written consents must be retained by the author and copies of the consents or evidence that such consents have been obtained must be provided to Elsevier on request.
Particular care should be taken with obtaining consent where children are concerned (in particular where a child has special needs or learning disabilities), where an individual¡¯s head or face appears, or where reference is made to an individual¡¯s name or other personal details.